Câștiguri online bătrâni mineri. History of coal miners - Wikipedia


Pre [ edit ] Although some deep mining took place as early as the late Tudor period in the North Eastand roughly the same time in the Stuart period along the Firth of Forth coast, deep shaft mining in Britain began to develop extensively in the late 18th century, with rapid expansion throughout the 19th century and early 20th century when the industry peaked.

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The location of the coalfields helped to make the prosperity of Lancashireof Yorkshireand of South Wales ; the Yorkshire pits which supplied Sheffield were only about feet deep. Northumberland and Durham were the leading coal producers and they were the sites of the first deep pits.

History of coal miners

In much of Britain coal was worked from drift minesor scraped off when it outcropped on câștiguri online bătrâni mineri surface. Small groups of part-time miners used shovels and primitive equipment. After output soared, reaching 16 million long tons by By this had risen to over 30 million tons [14] The miners, less menaced by imported labour or machines than were the textile workers, had begun to form trade unions and fight their battle for control against the coal owners and royalty-lessees.

In South Wales, the miners showed a high degree of solidarity.

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They lived in isolated villages where the miners comprised the great majority of workers. There was a high degree of equality in life style; combined with an evangelical religious style based on Methodism this led to an ideology of equalitarianism.

They forged a "community of solidarity" - under the leadership of the Miners Federation. The union supported first the Liberal Party, then after Labour, with some Communist Party activism at the fringes.

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Their dominance in remote villages heightened political and industrial solidarily, colliery owners. Much of the 'old Left ' of British politics can trace its origins to coal-mining areas, with the main labour union being the Miners' Federation of Great Britain, founded in The MFGB claimedmembers in The national coal strike of was the first national strike by coal miners in Britain.

Its main goal of securing a minimum wage. After a million men had walked out for 37 days the government intervened and ended the strike by passing a minimum wage law.

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The reintroduction of the câștiguri online bătrâni mineri standard in made the British pound too strong for effective exporting to take place from Britain, and also because of the economic processes involved in maintaining a strong currency raised interest rates, hurting all businesses. Mine owners wanted to normalise profits even during times of economic instability, which often took the form of wage reductions for miners in their employ.

Coupled with the prospect of longer working hours, the industry was thrown into disarray. The miners' pay had gone down from £6.

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Mine owners announced their intention to reduce miners' wages. The Conservative government under Stanley Baldwin decided câștiguri online bătrâni mineri intervene, declaring that they would provide a nine-month subsidy to maintain the miners' wages and that a Royal Commission under the chairmanship of Sir Herbert Samuel would look into the problems of the mining industry.

This decision became known as "Red Friday" because it was seen as a victory for working-class solidarity and Socialism.

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In practice, the subsidy gave the mine owners and the government time to prepare for a major labour dispute. Herbert Smith a leader of the Miners' Federation said of this event: "We have no need to glorify about victory. It is only an armistice.

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David Lloyd Georgethe then prime minister, offered reorganisation, which was rejected by the miners. The United Kingdom general strike was a general strike that lasted nine days, from 4 May to 13 May It was called by the Trades Union Congress TUC in an unsuccessful attempt to force the British government to act to prevent wage reduction and worsening conditions forlocked-out coal miners.

Some 1.

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The government was prepared and enlisted middle class volunteers to maintain essential services. There was little violence and the TUC gave up in defeat.

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The miners gained nothing. In the long run, there was little impact on trade-union activity or industrial relations.

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By the end of November most miners were back at work. However, many remained unemployed for many years.

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Those that were employed were forced to accept longer hours, lower wages, and district wage agreements. The strikers felt as though they had achieved nothing. The effect on the British coal-mining industry was profound.

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By the late s, employment in mining had fallen by more than one-third from its pre-strike peak of 1. The industry declined steadily despite protests such as the UK miners' strike The s and s saw much change in the coal industry, with privatisation, the industry contracting, in some areas quite drastically. Many pits were considered uneconomic [25] to work at then current wage rates compared to cheap North Sea oil and gas, and in comparison to subsidy levels in Europe.

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The NCB employed overpeople in andinbut successive governments reduced the size of the industry by closing geographically impaired or low productivity pits.